Pierre de Fermat was an eccentric jurist who lived in France during the 17th century, and whose real love was mathematics. His special love was the mysterious and beautiful properties of integers – the ordinary whole numbers of everyday arithmetic. Fermat published no scholarly papers, but he kept extensive notebooks in which one may find the beginnings of much of modern arithmetic.
While studying the ancient Greek text “Arithmetica” by Diofantus, Fermat came across the famous Pythagorean equation
a2 + b2 = c