# 2018年 生命科學與醫學獎

## 貢獻

2018年度邵逸夫生命科學與醫學獎頒予瑪莉-克萊爾 • 金 (Mary-Claire King)，以表彰她繪製第一個乳腺癌基因的基因圖。瑪莉-克萊爾 • 金利用數學模型預測和證明乳腺癌可以由單個基因引起。她繪製的基因圖促成了乳腺癌基因的克隆，因而挽救了許多人的生命。瑪莉-克萊爾 • 金是美國西雅圖的華盛頓大學醫學系和基因組科學系美國癌症協會講座教授。

## 得獎人獲獎介紹

Differential equations are fundamental to large parts of mathematics, physics, and indeed all the sciences. For example, if a physical system is in a certain state, and obeys certain laws, then a differential equation will tell you the state of the system infinitesimally later, and by putting together all these infinitesimal changes one can follow the evolution of the system in time. Or if a static system is held together by certain forces, a differential equation can often say how one part of the system depends on its immediate neighbours, and putting together this local information can give a global description of the system.

The simplest differential equations, known as ordinary differential equations, concern functions that depend on just one variable. For example, if a stone is thrown vertically in the air, then there is an ordinary differential equation that describes how its height varies as a function of time, given its initial height and velocity. However, the most useful equations, known as partial differential equations, concern functions of several variables (such as, for example, three spatial coordinates and one temporal coordinate) and are significantly more complicated as a result. Partial differential equations can be used to model heat flow, fluid motion, electromagnetic waves, quantum mechanics, the shape of soap bubbles, and innumerable other physical phenomena.

2018年5月14日  香港