2018年 生命科学与医学奖

贡献

2018年度邵逸夫生命科学与医学奖颁予玛莉-克莱尔 • 金 (Mary-Claire King)，以表彰她绘制第一个乳腺癌基因的基因图。玛莉-克莱尔 • 金利用数学模型预测和证明乳腺癌可以由单个基因引起。她绘制的基因图促成了乳腺癌基因的克隆，因而挽救了许多人的生命。玛莉-克莱尔 • 金是美国西雅图的华盛顿大学医学系和基因组科学系美国癌症协会讲座教授。

得奖人获奖介绍

Differential equations are fundamental to large parts of mathematics, physics, and indeed all the sciences. For example, if a physical system is in a certain state, and obeys certain laws, then a differential equation will tell you the state of the system infinitesimally later, and by putting together all these infinitesimal changes one can follow the evolution of the system in time. Or if a static system is held together by certain forces, a differential equation can often say how one part of the system depends on its immediate neighbours, and putting together this local information can give a global description of the system.

The simplest differential equations, known as ordinary differential equations, concern functions that depend on just one variable. For example, if a stone is thrown vertically in the air, then there is an ordinary differential equation that describes how its height varies as a function of time, given its initial height and velocity. However, the most useful equations, known as partial differential equations, concern functions of several variables (such as, for example, three spatial coordinates and one temporal coordinate) and are significantly more complicated as a result. Partial differential equations can be used to model heat flow, fluid motion, electromagnetic waves, quantum mechanics, the shape of soap bubbles, and innumerable other physical phenomena.

2018年5月14日  香港